纪实摄影:新路,涅涅茨人的生活方式

在她的系列作品《新路》中,纪实摄影师兼人类学家阿莱格拉·爱丽(Alegra Ally)前往西伯利亚的亚马尔半岛(Yamal Peninsula),研究和记录涅涅茨人的生活方式。

数千年来,当地的涅涅茨人一直过着游牧的生活,他们在俄罗斯北极地区的亚马尔半岛放牧驯鹿。库迪家族是1.2万名涅涅茨人中的一员,他们仍然按照祖先几百年来的路线迁徙。

通过跟随Khudi家族,Ally打开了一扇关于涅涅茨人生活的窗户,强调了他们是如何适应现代生活的,他们的文化是如何根据最近的资源开采发展、全球化、气候变化而进化的——这些因素既丰富了他们的集体身份,也威胁着他们的集体身份。

旅途中还有一个戏剧性的转折,怀孕9个月的莉娜准备生孩子,为了保证800头驯鹿的未来,家庭成员需要继续每年冬季的迁徙。因此,《诞生传奇》成为了文化生存斗争的象征。

目前居住在澳大利亚悉尼的Ally在过去的8年里致力于Wild Born项目,通过伦理摄影记录和复兴土著妇女生活中重大事件的传统习俗和信仰,如仪式、怀孕、分娩和产后仪式。

现在,你可以通过购买她的最新著作《新路》(New Path by Alegra Ally)来支持她的事业。这本书将于7月出版,由Schilt Publishing出版社出版。

Lena and her daughter Christina are standing at the entrance of their chum. Lena’s large belly is obvious under her dress, and there is no doubt that she is nine months pregnant. Image credit: Alegra Ally/Schilt Publishing
During the change of season from autumn to winter, the vast tundra of the Yamal Peninsula is transformed into an icy landscape covered in snow and interlaced with frozen rivers and lakes. This transformation allows the Nentsy to migrate with their sledges and reindeer herds across the tundra for thousands of kilometres, following their ancient migration route to their winter camps. Image credit: Alegra Ally/Schilt Publishing
For the four-year-old Christina the vast open landscape of the tundra in autumn is her playground, and she makes a game of breaking the thin ice that forms over the pools of water. Gradually as the winter comes, the air becomes crisper and temperatures begin to drop consistently. The layers of ice begin to thicken and Christina finds great joy in rolling on the thick frozen ice. Image credit: Alegra Ally/Schilt Publishing
For thousands of years indigenous Nenets have led nomadic lifestyles, migrating with their reindeer herds across the Yamal Peninsula in the Russian Arctic. The Khudi family is one of 12,000 Nenets still migrating along the same routes as their ancestors did for centuries. Image credit: Alegra Ally/Schilt Publishing
Praskovya is 96 years old, and the oldest Nenets grandmother living on the tundra. Even at 96, her age does not stop her from spending many hours outside, helping with the herd, and cutting firewood. Image credit: Alegra Ally/Schilt Publishing
The dogs are treated like family in the Nentsy culture. Lena and her husband Lyonya have a herd of 800 reindeers and three, who are an essential part of herding reindeer. Image credit: Alegra Ally/Schilt Publishing
A huge part of the Nentsy’s adaptation to life on the tundra lies in the ingenious design of the chum, the traditional tepee structure that they live in. Image credit: Alegra Ally/Schilt Publishing
The Nentsy have specific adaptations for migrating safely with newborns across one of the harshest climates on earth. Ne Khan (women’s sledges) are designed to accommodate infants in cradles. A cradle, called khoba in the Nenets language, is passed down from generation to generation, or alternatively the soon-to-be father will build a new one. However, it is considered taboo to build or repair cradles before the baby is born. Image credit: Alegra Ally/Schilt Publishing
In the Nenets culture, all jobs inside the chum, including all of the house-keeping, cooking and taking care of the children and the dogs, are done by women, while men’s responsibilities are with the herd. Men are prohibited from doing any of the women’s work. Image credit: Alegra Ally/Schilt Publishing
The sledges are an important aspect of the Nenets way of life. They are used for all aspects of their travel and migration, as well as for storage. There are at least two sledges designated for food storage. Like portable refrigerators, these sledges are used to store frozen meat, bread, butter and other staples. Image credit: Alegra Ally/Schilt Publishing
The most basic aspects of survival, such as keeping warm, requires constant tending to on the tundra. Cutting firewood to keep the fire burning, or using an axe to break the ice to fetch water for cooking and drinking, are daily tasks that must be done in all kinds of weather, including snow storms and temperatures of -40 to -50°C. Image credit: Alegra Ally/Schilt Publishing

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